Arthroscopic techniques still represent the treatment of choice in osteochondral lesions of the talus (OLT). Open techniques may be used as an alternative or may be complementary to arthroscopic treatments. They are especially indicated in cases of large osteochondral lesions, difficult localisations and in cases of recurrent interventions. In addition to the type of treatment for the lesion itself, the choice of an ideal surgical approach is of paramount importance. Indications, operative technique, possible complications and rehabilitation are described in detail for each approach. Anterolateral, anteromedial, posterolateral and posteromedial soft-tissue approaches as well as medial and lateral malleolar osteotomies are discussed. If a distraction is not desired with arthroscopy, posteromedial and posterolateral soft-tissue approaches offer a good alternative for the treatment of posterior OLT. Osteotomy of the (medial) malleolus offers good visualisation of the medial talar dome. With the introduction of new techniques of osteochondral transplantations, the use of this approach is becoming more popular. However, it is an invasive technique and the risk of secondary osteoarthritis after malleolar osteotomy still needs to be determined.
- Osteochondral lesions
- Osteotomy of the medial malleolus