Viraemia and HIV-1 drug resistance mutations among patients receiving antiretroviral treatment in Mozambique

F. Maldonado, M. Biot, F. Roman, C. Masquelier, M. Anapenge, R. Bastos, H. C. Chuquela, V. Arendt, J. C. Schmit, R. Zachariah*

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

    17 Citations (Scopus)


    This study was conducted among individuals taking first-line antiretroviral treatment (ART) for at least 12 months under programme conditions in Maputo, Mozambique in order to report on the level of detectable viraemia and the proportion and types of drug resistance mutations among those with detectable viral loads. HIV-1 RNA viral load levels (lower detection limit <50 copies/ml) were measured, and resistance mutations were sequenced. One hundred and forty-nine consecutive patients (69% females, median age 36 years) were included after a mean follow-up time of 23 months. One hundred and seven (72%; 95% CI 64-79) had undetectable viral load, while in 42 (28%, 95% CI 21-36) viral load was detectable (range 50-58 884 copies/ml). From 15 patients with viral load >1000 copies/ml, 12 viruses were sequenced: eight were C subtypes and four were circulating recombinant forms (CRF08). Eight (5%; 95% CI 2-9) patients with detectable viral load had one or more major resistance mutations. Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) and non-NRTI mutations were observed. There were no major mutations for resistance to protease inhibitors. In Maputo, the level of detectable viraemia is reassuringly low. While embarking on ART scale-up, wider surveillance is warranted to monitor programme quality and limit the development of drug resistance, which remains a major potential challenge for the future of ART in Africa.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)607-612
    Number of pages6
    JournalTransactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
    Issue number6
    Publication statusPublished - Jun 2009


    • Adherence support
    • Antiretroviral therapy
    • Drug resistance
    • HIV
    • Mozambique
    • Viral load


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