Vaccination of healthcare personnel in Europe: Update to current policies

Helena C. Maltezou*, Elisabeth Botelho-Nevers, Arne B. Brantsæter, Rose Marie Carlsson, Ulrich Heininger, Judith M. Hübschen, Kamilla S. Josefsdottir, George Kassianos, Jan Kyncl, Caterina Ledda, Snežana Medić, Aneta Nitsch-Osuch, Raul Ortiz de Lejarazu, Maria Theodoridou, Pierre Van Damme, Gerrit A. van Essen, Sabine Wicker, Ursula Wiedermann, Gregory A. Poland, Silvia BinoRadosveta Filipova, Vladimir Draženović, Maria Koliou, Katerina Fabianova, Lise Heilmann Jensen, Irina Filippova, Ulpu Elonsalo, Zsuzsanna Molnár, Kamilla Sigridur Josefsdottir, Lynda Sisson, Jurijs Perevoscikovs, Larisa Savrasova, Saulius Caplinskas, Françoise Berthet, Judith M. Hübschen, Michael Borg, Olga Cirstea, Gerrit A.van Essen, Silva Graça, Oana Falup-Pecurariu, Irina Mikheeva, Dagmar Kollárová, Tatjana Mrvic, Raúl Ortiz de Lejarazu, Adam Roth, Liudmyla Chernyshova, Fedir Lapiy, Vaccination Policies for HCP in Europe Study Group

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

77 Citations (Scopus)


We investigated and compared current national vaccination policies for health-care personnel (HCP) in Europe with results from our previous survey. Data from 36 European countries were collected using the same methodology as in 2011. National policies for HCP immunization were in place in all countries. There were significant differences in terms of number of vaccinations, target HCP and healthcare settings, and implementation regulations (recommended or mandatory vaccinations). Vaccination policies against hepatitis B and seasonal influenza were present in 35 countries each. Policies for vaccination of HCP against measles, mumps, rubella and varicella existed in 28, 24, 25 and 19 countries, respectively; and against tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis and poliomyelitis in 21, 20, 19, and 18 countries, respectively. Recommendations for hepatitis A immunization existed in 17 countries, and against meningococcus B, meningococcus C, meningococcus A, C, W, Y, and tuberculosis in 10, 8, 17, and 7 countries, respectively. Mandatory vaccination policies were found in 13 countries and were a pre-requisite for employment in ten. Comparing the vaccination programs of the 30 European countries that participated in the 2011 survey, we found that more countries had national vaccination policies against measles, mumps, rubella, hepatitis A, diphtheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis, pertussis, meningococcus C and/or meningococcus A, C, W, Y; and more of these implemented mandatory vaccination policies for HCP. In conclusion, European countries now have more comprehensive national vaccination programs for HCP, however there are still gaps. Given the recent large outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases in Europe and the occupational risk for HCP, vaccination policies need to be expanded and strengthened in several European countries. Overall, vaccination policies for HCP in Europe should be periodically re-evaluated in order to provide optimal protection against vaccine-preventable diseases and infection control within healthcare facilities for HCP and patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7576-7584
Number of pages9
Issue number52
Publication statusPublished - 10 Dec 2019


  • Europe
  • Healthcare personnel
  • Occupational
  • Policies
  • Vaccination


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