Background:Angiogenesis is essential for tumour growth and metastasis. There are conflicting reports as to whether microvessel density (MVD) using the endothelial marker CD105 (cluster of differentiation molecule 105) in clear-cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCC) is associated with prognosis. Recently, CD105 has been described as a RCC cancer stem cell marker.Methods:A total of 102 ccRCC were analysed. Representative tumour sections were stained for CD105. Vascularity (endothelial CD105) was quantified by MVD. The immunohistochemistry analysis detected positive (if present) or negative (if absent) CD105 tumoral staining. This retrospective population-based study was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier method, t-test and Cox proportional hazard model.Results:We found that the expression of endothelial CD105 (MVD) negatively correlated with nuclear grade (P<0.001), tumour stage (P<0.001) and Leibovitch score (P<0.001), whereas the expression of tumoral CD105 positively correlated with these three clinicopathological factors (P<0.001). In multivariate analysis, tumoral CD105 was found to be an independent predictor of poor overall survival (P=0.002).Conclusions:We have shown for the first time that tumoral CD105 is an independent predictive marker for death risk and unfavourable prognosis in patients with ccRCC after curative resection.