Transmission of drug-resistant HIV-1 is stabilizing in Europe

Jurgen Vercauteren, Annemarie M.J. Wensing, David A.M.C. Van De Vijver, Jan Albert, Claudia Balotta, Osamah Hamouda, Claudia Kücherer, Daniel Struck, Jean Claude Schmit, Birgitta Åsjö, Marie Bruckova, Ricardo J. Camacho, Bonaventura Clotet, Suzie Coughlan, Zehava Grossman, Andrzej Horban, Klaus Korn, Leondios Kostrikis, Claus Nielsen, Dimitrios ParaskevisMario Poljak, Elisabeth Puchhammer-Stöckl, Chiara Riva, Lidia Ruiz, Mika Salminen, Rob Schuurman, Anders Sonnerborg, Danica Stanekova, Maja Stanojevic, Anne Mieke Vandamme, Charles A.B. Boucher

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220 Citations (Scopus)


The SPREAD Programme investigated prospectively the time trend from September 2002 through December 2005 of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) among 2793 patients in 20 European countries and in Israel with newly diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. The overall prevalence of TDR was 8.4% (225 of 2687 patients; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.4%-9.5%), the prevalence of nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) resistance was 4.7% (125 of 2687 patients; 95% CI, 3.9%-5.5%), the prevalence of nonucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) resistance was 2.3% (62 of 2687 patients; 95% CI, 1.8%-2.9%), and the prevalence of protease inhibitor (PI) resistance was 2.9% (79 of 2687 patients; 95% CI, 2.4%-3.6%). There was no time trend in the overall TDR or in NRTI resistance, but there was a statistically significant decrease in PI resistance (Pp.04) and in NNRTI resistance after an initial increase (Pp.02). We found that TDR appears to be stabilizing in Europe, consistent with recent reports of decreasing drug resistance and improved viral suppression in patients treated for HIV-1 infection.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1503-1508
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Infectious Diseases
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2009
Externally publishedYes


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