Tocilizumab in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 (RECOVERY): a randomised, controlled, open-label, platform trial

Obbina Abani, Ali Abbas, Fatima Abbas, Mustafa Abbas, Sadia Abbasi, Hakam Abbass, Alfie Abbott, Nabeel Abdallah, Ashraf Abdelaziz, Mohamed Abdelfattah, Bushra Abdelqader, Basir Abdul, Althaf Abdul Rasheed, Ajibode Abdulakeem, Rezan Abdul-Kadir, Abdulfatahi Abdulmumeen, Rasheed Abdul-Raheem, Niyaz Abdulshukkoor, Kula Abdusamad, Yazeed Abed El KhaleqMai Abedalla, Abeer Abeer Ul Amna, Katrina Abernethy, Adebanke Aboaba, Hani Abo-Leyah, Ahmed Abou-Haggar, Mahmoud Abouibrahim, Miriam Abraham, Tizzy Abraham, Abraheem Abraheem, Judith Abrams, Hyacinth John Abu, Ahmed Abu-Arafeh, Syed M. Abubacker, Akata Abung, Yaa Aceampong, Amaka Achara, Devikumar Acharya, Sarah Acheampong, Janet Acheson, Andres Acosta, Catherine Acton, Jacqueline Adabie-Ankrah, Fiona Adam, Matthew Adam, Huzaifa Adamali, Carol Adams, Charlotte Adams, Kate Adams, Pauline Lambert, RECOVERY Collaborative Group

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

1262 Citations (Scopus)


Background: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of tocilizumab in adult patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 with both hypoxia and systemic inflammation. Methods: This randomised, controlled, open-label, platform trial (Randomised Evaluation of COVID-19 Therapy [RECOVERY]), is assessing several possible treatments in patients hospitalised with COVID-19 in the UK. Those trial participants with hypoxia (oxygen saturation <92% on air or requiring oxygen therapy) and evidence of systemic inflammation (C-reactive protein ≥75 mg/L) were eligible for random assignment in a 1:1 ratio to usual standard of care alone versus usual standard of care plus tocilizumab at a dose of 400 mg–800 mg (depending on weight) given intravenously. A second dose could be given 12–24 h later if the patient's condition had not improved. The primary outcome was 28-day mortality, assessed in the intention-to-treat population. The trial is registered with ISRCTN (50189673) and (NCT04381936). Findings: Between April 23, 2020, and Jan 24, 2021, 4116 adults of 21 550 patients enrolled into the RECOVERY trial were included in the assessment of tocilizumab, including 3385 (82%) patients receiving systemic corticosteroids. Overall, 621 (31%) of the 2022 patients allocated tocilizumab and 729 (35%) of the 2094 patients allocated to usual care died within 28 days (rate ratio 0·85; 95% CI 0·76–0·94; p=0·0028). Consistent results were seen in all prespecified subgroups of patients, including those receiving systemic corticosteroids. Patients allocated to tocilizumab were more likely to be discharged from hospital within 28 days (57% vs 50%; rate ratio 1·22; 1·12–1·33; p<0·0001). Among those not receiving invasive mechanical ventilation at baseline, patients allocated tocilizumab were less likely to reach the composite endpoint of invasive mechanical ventilation or death (35% vs 42%; risk ratio 0·84; 95% CI 0·77–0·92; p<0·0001). Interpretation: In hospitalised COVID-19 patients with hypoxia and systemic inflammation, tocilizumab improved survival and other clinical outcomes. These benefits were seen regardless of the amount of respiratory support and were additional to the benefits of systemic corticosteroids. Funding: UK Research and Innovation (Medical Research Council) and National Institute of Health Research.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1637-1645
Number of pages9
JournalThe Lancet
Issue number10285
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2021


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