The Virtual Metabolic Human database: Integrating human and gut microbiome metabolism with nutrition and disease

Alberto Noronha, Jennifer Modamio, Yohan Jarosz, Elisabeth Guerard, Nicolas Sompairac, German Preciat, Anna Dröfn Daníelsdóttir, Max Krecke, Diane Merten, Hulda S. Haraldsdóttir, Almut Heinken, Laurent Heirendt, Stefanía Magnúsdóttir, Dmitry A. Ravcheev, Swagatika Sahoo, Piotr Gawron, Lucia Friscioni, Beatriz Garcia, Mabel Prendergast, Alberto PuenteMariana Rodrigues, Akansha Roy, Mouss Rouquaya, Luca Wiltgen, Alise Žagare, Elisabeth John, Maren Krueger, Inna Kuperstein, Andrei Zinovyev, Reinhard Schneider, Ronan M.T. Fleming*, Ines Thiele

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

205 Citations (Scopus)


A multitude of factors contribute to complex diseases and can be measured with 'omics- methods. Databases facilitate data interpretation for underlying mechanisms. Here, we describe the Virtual Metabolic Human (VMH, database encapsulating current knowledge of human metabolism within five interlinked resources 'Human metabolism-, 'Gut microbiome-, 'Disease-, 'Nutrition-, and 'ReconMaps-. The VMH captures 5180 unique metabolites, 17 730 unique reactions, 3695 human genes, 255 Mendelian diseases, 818 microbes, 632 685 microbial genes and 8790 food items. The VMH-s unique features are (i) the hosting of the metabolic reconstructions of human and gut microbes amenable for metabolic modeling; (ii) seven human metabolic maps for data visualization; (iii) a nutrition designer; (iv) a user-friendly webpage and application-programming interface to access its content; (v) user feedback option for community engagement and (vi) the connection of its entities to 57 other web resources. The VMH represents a novel, interdisciplinary database for data interpretation and hypothesis generation to the biomedical community.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)D614-D624
JournalNucleic Acids Research
Issue numberD1
Publication statusPublished - 8 Jan 2019
Externally publishedYes


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