The protective role of the microenvironment in hairy cell leukemia treatment: Facts and perspectives

Ernesto Gargiulo, Mirta Giordano, Carsten U. Niemann, Etienne Moussay* (Main author), Jérôme Paggetti* (Main author), Pablo Elías Morande*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is an incurable, rare lymphoproliferative hematological malignancy of mature B cAlthough first line therapy with purine analogues leads to positive results, almost half of HCL patients relapse after 5-10 years, and standard treatment may not be an option due to intolerance or refractoriness. Proliferation and survival of HCL cells is regulated by surrounding accessory cells and soluble signals present in the tumor microenvironment, which actively contributes to disease progression. In vitro studies show that different therapeutic approaches tested in HCL impact the tumor microenvironment, and that this milieu offers a protection affecting treatment efficacy. Herein we explore the effects of the tumor microenvironment to different approved and experimental therapeutic options for HCL. Dissecting the complex interactions between leukemia cells and their milieu will be essential to develop new targeted therapies for HCL patients.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1122699
JournalFrontiers in Oncology
Publication statusPublished - 8 Mar 2023


  • HCL
  • leukemia microenvironment
  • microenvironment targeting
  • novel therapies
  • treatment resistance


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