The hallmarks of Parkinson's disease

Paul M.A. Antony*, Nico J. Diederich, Rejko Krüger, Rudi Balling

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

205 Citations (Scopus)


Since the discovery of dopamine as a neurotransmitter in the 1950s, Parkinson's disease (PD) research has generated a rich and complex body of knowledge, revealing PD to be an age-related multifactorial disease, influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. The tremendous complexity of the disease is increased by a nonlinear progression of the pathogenesis between molecular, cellular and organic systems. In this minireview, we explore the complexity of PD and propose a systems-based approach, organizing the available information around cellular disease hallmarks. We encourage our peers to adopt this cell-based view with the aim of improving communication in interdisciplinary research endeavors targeting the molecular events, modulatory cell-to-cell signaling pathways and emerging clinical phenotypes related to PD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5981-5993
Number of pages13
JournalFEBS Journal
Issue number23
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • Parkinson's disease
  • cellular hallmarks
  • environmental factors
  • genetic factors
  • systems biology
  • translational research


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