The glymphatic system (En)during inflammation

Frida Lind Holm Mogensen, Christine Delle, Maiken Nedergaard*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

82 Citations (Scopus)


The glymphatic system is a fluid-transport system that accesses all regions of the brain. It facilitates the exchange of cerebrospinal fluid and interstitial fluid and clears waste from the metabolically active brain. Astrocytic endfeet and their dense expression of the aquaporin-4 water channels promote fluid exchange between the perivascular spaces and the neuropil. Cerebrospinal and interstitial fluids are together transported back to the vascular compartment by meningeal and cervical lymphatic vessels. Multiple lines of work show that neurological diseases in general impair glymphatic fluid transport. Insofar as the glymphatic system plays a pseudo-lymphatic role in the central nervous system, it is poised to play a role in neuroinflammation. In this review, we discuss how the association of the glymphatic system with the meningeal lymphatic vessel calls for a renewal of established concepts on the CNS as an immune-privileged site. We also discuss potential approaches to.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7491
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Issue number14
Publication statusPublished - 2 Jul 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • AQP4
  • Astrocytes
  • CSF
  • Glia limitans
  • Glymphatic system
  • Immune privilege
  • Immune surveillance
  • Inflammation
  • ISF
  • Ocular glymphatic system


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