The evolution and social determinants of mental health during the first wave of the COVID-19 outbreak in Luxembourg

Fabiana Ribeiro*, Valerie E. Schröder, Rejko Krüger, Anja K. Leist, the CON-VINCE Consortium, Kate Sokolowska, Manon Gantenbein, Judith Hübschen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


Studies have been showing a negative impact of pandemic control measures on mental health. However, few studies assessed these effects longitudinally during the peak of the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. The goals of this study were to explore whether differential effects of COVID-19 restrictions on mental health could be observed by sex and age in a Luxembourgish nationally representative sample during the initial outbreak of COVID-19. Furthermore, we aimed to assess whether there are differences in risk and protective factors longitudinally at two assessment times. A total of 1,756 respondents aged 18 years and older (50.74% women) reported sociodemographic and socio-economic characteristics, depression, anxiety, stress, and loneliness. Women and younger respondents reported higher rates of severe depression and anxiety symptoms, suggesting higher vulnerability to the pandemic control measures. This study contributes to the investigation of mental health consequences of the pandemic and the pandemic control measures, particularly related to shifts in care task responsibilities, gender and socio-economic inequalities, as well as younger groups' uncertainty about the future.

Original languageEnglish
Article number114090
Pages (from-to)114090
JournalPsychiatry Research
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2021


  • Anxiety
  • Depression
  • Loneliness
  • Pandemic control measures
  • Sex differences


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