The associations of the Palaeolithic diet alone and in combination with lifestyle factors with type 2 diabetes and hypertension risks in women in the E3N prospective cohort

Sanam Shah, Conor James MacDonald, Douae El Fatouhi, Yahya Mahamat-Saleh, Francesca Romana Mancini, Guy Fagherazzi, Gianluca Severi*, Marie Christine Boutron-Ruault, Nasser Laouali

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose: Patterns of change from the traditional Palaeolithic lifestyle to the modern lifestyle may partly explain the epidemic proportions of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). We investigated to what extent adherence to the Palaeolithic diet (PD) and the Palaeolithic-like lifestyle was associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and hypertension risks. Methods: A study of 70,991 women from the E3N (Etude Epidémiologique auprès de femmes de la Mutuelle Générale de l’Education Nationale) cohort, followed up for nearly 20 years. There were 3292 incident T2D and 12,504 incident hypertension cases that were validated. Dietary data were collected at baseline in 1993 via a food frequency questionnaire. The PD score and the Palaeolithic-like lifestyle score (PD, physical activity, smoking status, and body mass index [BMI]) were derived and considered in quintiles. Multivariable Cox regression models were employed to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for incident T2D and hypertension. Results: In the fully adjusted models, a 1-SD increase of the PD score was associated with 4% and 3% lower risks of T2D and hypertension, respectively. Those in the highest versus the lowest quintile of the score had HR (95% CI) of 0.88 (0.79, 0.98) and 0.91 (0.86, 0.96) for T2D and hypertension, respectively (P-trend < 0.0001). Associations were stronger for the Palaeolithic-like lifestyle score; in the fully adjusted model, a 1-SD increase of the score was associated with 19% and 6% lower risks of T2D and hypertension, respectively. Risks lowered successively with each increase in quintile; those in the highest versus the lowest quintile had HR (95% CI) of 0.58 (0.52, 0.65) and 0.85 (0.80, 0.90) for T2D and hypertension, respectively (P-trend < 0.0001). Conclusions: Our data suggest that adhering to a PD based on fruit, vegetables, lean meats, fish, and nuts, and incorporating a Palaeolithic-like lifestyle could be promising options to prevent T2D and hypertension.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3935-3945
Number of pages11
JournalEuropean Journal of Nutrition
Volume60
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2021

Keywords

  • Dietary pattern
  • Hypertension
  • Palaeolithic-like lifestyle
  • Prospective study
  • The Palaeolithic diet
  • Type 2 diabetes

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