The association of dietary antioxidant index (DAI) with breast cancer among Iranian women: A case-control study

Pooneh Allahyari, Mina Ahmadzadeh, Farhad Vahid, Maryam Gholamalizadeh, Hanieh Shafaei, Soheila Shekari, Naeemeh Hasanpour Ardekanizadeh, Fatemeh Shafiee, Nazanin Majidi, Mohammad Esmail Akbari, Saeid Doaei*, Mark O. Goodarzi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Recent studies have reported that dietary antioxidants can influence the risk of breast cancer (BC). Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the association of dietary antioxidant index (DAI) with BC among Iranian women. This case-control study was conducted on 180 women with breast cancer and 360 healthy women who were referred to the cancer clinic of Shohadaye Tajrish Hospital in Tehran, Iran. A 168-item validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to assess dietary intake. The DAI score was calculated based on the intake of antioxidant vitamins and minerals derived from the FFQ. The control group had a significantly higher intake of vitamin D (1.79±1.56 vs. 1.05±0.84 μg/d; P=0.01) and lower intake of calorie (2315±1066 vs. 2737±925 kcal/d; P=0.01), carbohydrate (311±170 vs. 402±124 g/d; P=0.01), iron (15.4±12.1 vs. 19.7±6.4 mg/d; P=0.01), thiamine (1.5±0.7 vs. 2.3±0.9 mg/d; P=0.01), niacin (18.2±9.2 vs. 24.3±7.9 mg/d; P=0.01), folic acid (465±308.7 vs. 673±205.2 μg/d; P=0.01), and selenium (82.6±41.7 vs. 98.7±40.8 μg/d; P=0.01) compared to the case group. No significant association was found between DAI with breast cancer after adjustments for age. DAI had a negative association with breast cancer after additional adjustments for BMI, the number of pregnancies, duration of breastfeeding, menopause age, and total energy intake (OR: 0.91, 95% CI: 0.90-.93, and all P<0.001). The present study identified a negative association between DAI and the risk of BC, indicating the importance of antioxidants in preventing BC. Longitudinal studies should be conducted to confirm this association.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)483-489
Number of pages7
JournalInternational Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research
Issue number6
Early online date4 Mar 2022
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2023


  • Breast cancer
  • dietary antioxidant index
  • dietary intake


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