The association between the dietary inflammatory index and glioma: A case-control study

Azadeh Aminianfar, Farhad Vahid, Mehdi Shayanfar, Sayed Hossein Davoodi, Minoo Mohammad-Shirazi, Nitin Shivappa, Giuve Sharifi, James R. Hebert, Pamela J. Surkan, Zeinab Faghfoori, Ahmad Esmaillzadeh*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


Background & aims: Dietary inflammatory potential has been associated with several cancers. However, the relationship between the dietary inflammatory index (DII®) and glioma is not clear. The aim of this study was to examine DII in relation to glioma. Methods: In a hospital-based case-control study, we selected 128 newly-diagnosed cases of glioma and 256 controls. Cases were medically confirmed glioma patients, with no history of other cancers. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to assess diet. DII scores were calculated based on the quantity of dietary components with inflammatory or anti-inflammatory potential. We used conditional logistic regression models to examine the association between the DII and glioma. Result: Study participants were on average 43 years old and predominantly male (58%). After controlling for age, sex and energy intake, individuals in the highest quartile of DII had 87% (95% CI: 1.00–3.47) increased risk of glioma compared to those in the lowest quartile. Additional adjustment for environmental confounders strengthened the relationship; participants with the greatest DII scores had approximately 2.1 times (95% CI: 1.06, 3.83) increased odds of glioma than those with the lowest intake scores. The association was not substantially altered by further adjustment for BMI (2.76; 1.15–6.60). Conclusion: In conclusion, diets with high anti-inflammatory and low inflammatory nutrient contents are recommended to prevent glioma.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)433-439
Number of pages7
JournalClinical Nutrition
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • Brain tumor
  • Case-control study
  • Dietary inflammatory index
  • Glioma


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