The association between daily naps and metabolic syndrome: Evidence from a population-based study in the Middle-East

Hamideh Ghazizadeh, Naser Mobarra, Habibollah Esmaily, Seyed Mohammad Reza Seyedi, Amin Amiri, Fariborz Rezaeitalab, Naghmeh Mokhber, Mohsen Moohebati, Mahmoud Ebrahimi, Mohammad Tayebi, Negin Behboodi, Maryam Mohammadi-Bajgiran, Samineh Hashemi, Gordon A. Ferns, Saverio Stranges, Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan*, Mahmoud Reza Azarpazhooh*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Daily naps are a common habit in many Middle Eastern and Asian countries; however, little is known about the association between daily naps and other health consequences, including the presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods: Participants were recruited from the Mashhad stroke and heart atherosclerotic disorders study. We defined MetS according to International Diabetes Federation criteria. Nighttime sleeping hours were categorized into three categories: <6, 6–8, and >8 hours. Using logistic regression models, we analyzed the association between the duration of night-time sleep and daily naps with MetS and its different components. Results: A total of 9652 individuals were included in the study: 3859 with MetS (40%) and 5793 without MetS (60%), as the control group. Of all, 72% participants had a regular daily nap. Those with daily naps had a higher odd of MetS [Odds ratio:1.19, confidence interval: (1.08–1.33); P <.001]. We also observed significantly higher odds of obesity, central obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, and diabetes or impaired fasting glucose in these subjects. Men sleeping <6 hours per night had a lower odd of MetS. However, we observed higher odds of cardiovascular risk factors in participants sleeping <6 hours, including obesity and diabetes or IFG. Conclusion: Napping is a common habit in middle Eastern countries. Although the cross-sectional design of our study cannot prove causality, we observed a significant association between the presence of MetS and daily naps. The public should be aware of this possibility and be educated about the importance of sleeping patterns.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)684-689
Number of pages6
JournalSleep Health
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2020


  • Daily naps
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Nighttime duration
  • Sleep duration


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