Role of Alpha-actinin-3 in Contractile Properties of Human Single Muscle Fibers: A Case Series Study in Paraplegics

Siacia Broos, Laurent Malisoux, Daniel Theisen, Marc Francaux, Louise Deldicque, Martine A. Thomis

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    30 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    A common nonsense polymorphism in the ACTN3 gene results in the absence of α-actinin-3 in XX individuals. The wild type allele has been associated with power athlete status and an increased force output in numeral studies, though the mechanisms by which these effects occur are unclear. Recent findings in the Actn3-/- (KO) mouse suggest a shift towards 'slow' metabolic and contractile characteristics of fast muscle fibers lacking α-actinin-3. Skinned single fibers from the quadriceps muscle of three men with spinal cord injury (SCI) were tested regarding peak force, unloaded shortening velocity, force-velocity relationship, passive tension and calcium sensitivity. The SCI condition induces an 'equal environment condition' what makes these subjects ideal to study the role of α-actinin-3 on fiber type expression and single muscle fiber contractile properties. Genotyping for ACTN3 revealed that the three subjects were XX, RX and RR carriers, respectively. The XX carrier's biopsy was the only one that presented type I fibers with a complete lack of type IIx fibers. Properties of hybrid type IIa/IIx fibers were compared between the three subjects. Absence of α-actinin-3 resulted in less stiff type IIa/IIx fibers. The heterozygote (RX) exhibited the highest fiber diameter (0.121±0.005 mm) and CSA (0.012±0.001 mm2) and, as a consequence, the highest peak force (2.11±0.14 mN). Normalized peak force was similar in all three subjects (P = 0.75). Unloaded shortening velocity was highest in R-allele carriers (P<0.001). No difference was found in calcium sensitivity. The preservation of type I fibers and the absence of type IIx fibers in the XX individual indicate a restricted transformation of the muscle fiber composition to type II fibers in response to long-term muscle disuse. Lack of α-actinin-3 may decrease unloaded shortening velocity and increase fiber elasticity.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article numbere49281
    JournalPLoS ONE
    Volume7
    Issue number11
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 8 Nov 2012

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