By serial transplantation of human glioblastoma biopsies into the brain of immunodeficient nude rats, two different tumor phenotypes were obtained. Initially, the transplanted xenografts displayed a highly invasive phenotype that showed no signs of angiogenesis. By serial transplantation in animals, the tumors changed to a less invasive, predominantly angiogenic phenotype. To identify novel proteins related to the invasive phenotype, the xenografts were analyzed using a global proteomics approach. One of the identified proteins was protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) A6 precursor. PDI is a chaperone protein that mediates integrin-dependent cell adhesion. It is both present in the cytosol and at the cell surface. We show that PDI is strongly expressed on invasive glioma cells, in both xenografts and at the invasive front of human glioblastomas. Using an in vitro migration assay, we also show that PDI is expressed on migrating glioma cells. To determine the functional significance of PDI in cell migration, we tested the effect of a PDI inhibitor, bacitracin, and a PDI monoclonal antibody on glioma cell migration and invasion in vitro. Both tumor spheroids derived from human glioblastoma xenografts in nude rat brain and cell line spheroids were used. The PDI antibody, as well as bacitracin, inhibited tumor cell migration and invasion. The anti-invasive effect of bacitracin was reversible after withdrawal of the inhibitor, indicating a specific, nontoxic effect. In conclusion, using a global proteomics approach, PDI was identified to play an important role in glioma cell invasion, and its action was effectively inhibited by bacitracin.