BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization declared the outbreak of coronavirus disease to be a public health emergency of international concern on January 30, 2020. The first SARS-CoV-2 infection was subsequently detected in Luxembourg on February 29, 2020. Representative population-based data, including asymptomatic individuals for assessing the viral spread and immune response was, however, lacking worldwide.METHODSUsing a panel-based method, we recruited a representative sample of the Luxembourgish population based on age, gender and residency for testing for SARS-CoV-2 infection and antibody status in order to define prevalence irrespective of clinical symptoms. Participants were contacted via email to fill an online questionnaire before biosampling at local laboratories. Participants provided information related to clinical symptoms, epidemiology, socioeconomic and psychological assessments and underwent biosampling, rRT-PCR testing and serology for SARS-CoV-2.RESULTSA total of 1862 individuals were included for our representative sample of the general Luxembourgish population. We detected an ongoing SARS-CoV-2 infection based on rRT-PCR in 5 participants. h Four of the SARS-CoV-2 infected participants were oligosymptomatic and one was asymptomatic. Overall, 35 participants (1.97%) had developed a positive IgG response, of whom 11 self-reported to have previously received a positive rRT-PCR diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our data indicate a prevalence of 0.3% for active SARS-CoV-2 infection in the Luxembourgish population between 18 and 79 years of age.CONCLUSIONSLuxembourgish residents show a low rate of acute infections after 7 weeks of confinement and present with an antibody profile indicative of a more recent immune response to SARS-CoV-2. All infected individuals were oligo- or asymptomatic. Bi-weekly follow-up visits over the next 2 months will inform about the viral spread by oligo- and asymptomatic carriers and the individual changes in the immune profile.