Background: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, with an increasing prevalence worldwide. Estimates of the economic burden associated with PD vary widely across existing studies due to differences in setting and study design. The prevalence and cost of care for PD in Luxembourg are currently unknown. Objective: The aims of this study were to estimate (1) the prevalence of PD in Luxembourg and (2) the cost of care for PD to the national healthcare insurance based on routinely collected healthcare data. Methods: This analysis was based on individual patient-level data collected by the national healthcare insurance in Luxembourg during 2007–2017, which covers over 95% of the resident population. People with PD were identified based on drug reimbursement profiles. Cost of care was estimated according to a comparative analysis of the healthcare resources consumed by people with PD compared with an age- and sex-matched control group. Results: We determined a PD prevalence of 928 per 100,000 individuals aged 50 years and older in 2016, higher in men (1032 per 100,000) than in women (831 per 100,000). The total mean cost of care for PD was estimated at €22,673 per patient per year in 2016, with the highest costs being associated with long-term care (69%). Conclusion: This was the first attempt to estimate the prevalence and cost of care of PD in Luxembourg. The work demonstrated the usefulness of routinely collected data in Luxembourg for such analyses. Our study confirms the significant burden of PD to the healthcare system, especially on long-term care.