Patterns of transmitted HIV drug resistance in Europe vary by risk group

Dineke Frentz, David Van De Vijver, Ana Abecasis, Jan Albert, Osamah Hamouda, Louise Jørgensen, Claudia Kücherer, Daniel Struck, Jean Claude Schmit, Jurgen Vercauteren, Birgitta Åsjö, Claudia Balotta, Colm Bergin, Danail Beshkov, Ricardo Camacho, Bonaventura Clotet, Algirdas Griskevicius, Zehava Grossman, Andrzej Horban, Tatjana KolupajevaKlaus Korn, Leondios Kostrikis, Kirsi Liitsola Marek Linka, Claus Nielsen, Dan Otelea, Dimitrios Paraskevis, Roger Paredes, Mario Poljak, Elisabeth Puchhammer-Stöckl, Anders Sönnerborg, Danica Stanekova, Maja Stanojevic, Anne Mieke Vandamme, Charles Boucher, Annemarie Wensing

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    34 Citations (Scopus)


    Background: In Europe, a continuous programme (SPREAD) has been in place for ten years to study transmission of drug resistant HIV. We analysed time trends of transmitted drug resistance mutations (TDRM) in relation to the risk behaviour reported. Methods: HIV-1 patients newly diagnosed in 27 countries from 2002 through 2007 were included. Inclusion was representative for risk group and geographical distribution in the participating countries in Europe. Trends over time were calculated by logistic regression. Results: From the 4317 patients included, the majority was men-having-sex-with-men -MSM (2084, 48%), followed by heterosexuals (1501, 35%) and injection drug users (IDU) (355, 8%). MSM were more often from Western Europe origin, infected with subtype B virus, and recently infected (<1 year) (p<0.001). The prevalence of TDRM was highest in MSM (prevalence of 11.1%), followed by heterosexuals (6.6%) and IDU (5.1%, p<0.001). TDRM was predominantly ascribed to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) with a prevalence of 6.6% in MSM, 3.3% in heterosexuals and 2.0% in IDU (p = 0.001). A significant increase in resistance to non- nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) and a decrease in resistance to protease inhibitors was observed in MSM (p = 0.008 and p = 0.006, respectively), but not in heterosexual patients (p = 0.68 and p = 0.14, respectively). Conclusions: MSM showed to have significantly higher TDRM prevalence compared to heterosexuals and IDU. The increasing NNRTI resistance in MSM is likely to negatively influence the therapy response of first-line therapy, as most include NNRTI drugs.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article numbere94495
    JournalPLoS ONE
    Issue number4
    Publication statusPublished - 10 Apr 2014


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