Patients With Atopic Dermatitis Sensitized to Pet Dander Mount IgE and T-Cell Responses to Mammalian Cystatins, Including the Human Self-Protein

L. M. Roesner*, K. Swiontek, D. Lentz, G. Begemann, P. Kienlin, F. Hentges, M. Ollert, T. Werfel, C. Hilger

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Background: Immediate and delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions to pet-borne allergens are common in atopic diseases. In atopic dermatitis (AD), controversy surrounds the contribution to the disease of cross-reactivity to self-proteins. Human cystatin A and the cat allergen Fel d 3 belong to the cystatins, an evolutionary conserved protein family. The objective of the present study was to assess cross-reactivity between mammalian cystatins and to analyze T-cell responses to cystatin in AD patients sensitized to pet dander. Methods: cDNA coding for dog cystatin was cloned from dog skin. Sera from 245 patients with IgE-mediated sensitization to cat and dog dander were tested for IgE binding to recombinantly expressed feline, canine, and human cystatin. Of these, 141 were also diagnosed with AD. Results: Cystatin-specific IgE was detected in 36 patients (14.7%), of whom 19 were considerably affected by AD. Within the AD patients, 9 had measurable IgE against all 3 cystatins. Cystatin-sensitized AD patients did not differ from non–cystatin-sensitized patients in terms of disease severity, age, or total IgE levels. T-cell cytokine measurements showed elevated IL-4 levels after stimulation with feline and human cystatin. Conclusion: The humoral response suggests that in addition to Fel d 3, the homologous protein from dog might play a role in allergy. Furthermore, human cystatin appears to be capable of driving a type 2 immune response in sensitized AD patients and may therefore be considered a so-called autoallergen, as proposed for other evolutionary conserved proteins.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)383-392
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Investigational Allergology and Clinical Immunology
Volume32
Issue number5
Early online date3 Sep 2021
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 11 Oct 2022

Keywords

  • Allergy
  • Atopic dermatitis
  • Autoallergy
  • Autoreactivity
  • Can f 8
  • Cross-reactivity
  • Cystatin
  • Cytokine
  • Fel d 3
  • IgE
  • Pet
  • Sensitization
  • T cell

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