Breast cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in women worldwide, and its incidence is increasing. Diet has been identified as a modifiable risk factor for breast cancer, but the complex interplay between diet, metabolism, and cancer development is not fully understood. Nutritional metabolomics is a rapidly evolving field that can provide insights into the metabolic changes associated with dietary factors and their impact on breast cancer risk. The review’s objective is to provide a comprehensive overview of the current research on the application of nutritional metabolomics in understanding the relationship between diet and breast cancer. The search strategy involved querying several electronic databases, including PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. The search terms included combinations of relevant keywords such as “nutritional metabolomics”, “diet”, “breast cancer”, “metabolites”, and “biomarkers”. In this review, both in vivo and in vitro studies were included, and we summarize the current state of knowledge on the role of nutritional metabolomics in understanding the diet–breast cancer relationship, including identifying specific metabolites and metabolic pathways associated with breast cancer risk. We also discuss the challenges associated with nutritional metabolomics research, including standardization of analytical methods, interpretation of complex data, and integration of multiple-omics approaches. Finally, we highlight future directions for nutritional metabolomics research in studying diet–breast cancer relations, including investigating the role of gut microbiota and integrating multiple-omics approaches. The application of nutritional metabolomics in the study of diet–breast cancer relations, including 2-amino-4-cyano butanoic acid, piperine, caprate, rosten-3β,17β-diol-monosulfate, and γ-carboxyethyl hydrochroman, among others, holds great promise for advancing our understanding of the role of diet in breast cancer development and identifying personalized dietary recommendations for breast cancer prevention, control, and treatment.
- gut microbiota
- multiple-omics approaches
- personalized dietary recommendations