Nutritional Factors Involved in the Etiology of Gastric Cancer: A Systematic Review

Farhad Vahid*, Sayed Hossein Davoodi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)


Context: Since treatment options for GC are limited, the best and most effective way is to try to reduce the incidences and understanding prevention strategies. Objective: The success in prevention strategies depends on understanding etiologic mechanisms. Our goal is to identify the major nutritional risk factors for GC, and we will examine the controversial evidence. Data Sources: We used Pub Med, Google Scholar, Scopus, Science Direct, Elsevier, Springer, and MEDLINE databases for extracting articles. Data Extraction: Human studies published in English from 1997to2018 were included. Two reviewers other than authors initially assessed abstract of 742 papers and 248papers were selected for future assessments. After full review and consideration of the inclusion and exclusion criteria, we used 85 articles. Results: Dietary salt is a strong independent risk for GC whereas alcohol is most likely a risk only in the presence of heavy alcohol consumption. Red meat and high-fat diet increase the risk of developing GC but fresh fruits, vegetables and certain micronutrients like selenium and vitamin C are protective. Conclusion: Some nutrients such as selenium, vitamin C, folate, iron, and zinc are involved in the etiology of GC. On the other hand; salt, fats, alcohol, red meat, and pepper were reported to be risk factors for GC. Since the GC is a heterogeneous malignancy and multiple factors are involved in its genesis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)376-390
Number of pages15
JournalNutrition and Cancer
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 16 Mar 2021
Externally publishedYes


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