Nanoluciferase-based methods to monitor activation, modulation and trafficking of atypical chemokine receptors

Rafael Luís, Giulia D'Uonnolo, Christie B. Palmer, Max Meyrath, Tomasz Uchański, May Wantz, Bernard Rogister, Bassam Janji, Andy Chevigné*, Martyna Szpakowska*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Chemokines regulate directed cell migration, proliferation and survival and are key components in various physiological and pathological processes. They exert their functions by interacting with seven-transmembrane domain receptors that signal through G proteins (GPCRs). Atypical chemokine receptors (ACKRs) play important roles in the chemokine–receptor network by regulating chemokine bioavailability for the classical receptors through chemokine sequestration, scavenging or transport. Currently, this subfamily of receptors comprises four members: ACKR1, ACKR2, ACKR3 and ACKR4. They differ notably from the classical chemokine receptors by their inability to elicit G protein-mediated signaling, which precludes the use of classical assays relying on the activation of G proteins and related downstream secondary messengers to investigate ACKRs. There is therefore a need for alternative approaches to monitor ACKR activation, modulation and trafficking. This chapter details sensitive and versatile methods based on Nanoluciferase Binary Technology (NanoBiT) and Nanoluciferase Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer (NanoBRET) to monitor ACKR2 and ACKR3 activity through the measurement of β-arrestin and GRK recruitment, and receptor trafficking, including internalization and delivery to early endosomes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)279-294
Number of pages16
JournalMethods in Cell Biology
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • ACKR2
  • ACKR3
  • ACKR4
  • Arrestin
  • Chemokine
  • CXCR7
  • GRK3
  • NanoBiT
  • NanoBRET
  • Scavenger


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