Vaccination with the measles, mumps and rubella vaccine decreased the mumps incidence in Cuba, but in 2006 and 2007 an outbreak with more than 1000 laboratory confirmed cases occurred, mainly among high school and university students. The objective of the study was to investigate mumps epidemiology in Cuba between 2004 and 2015 and provide an in-depth laboratory characterization of selected samples from mumps patients. Samples from 116 cases (throat swabs, urines, paired acute and convalescent serum samples) were tested for mumps-specific IgM antibodies by ELISA, in a hemagglutination inhibition assay (HIA) or by RT-PCR. IgM antibodies were found in 80.2% of cases. 48.3% of first sera were positive, 30 of which were collected within two days after symptom onset. Testing of all 116 paired sera by HIA showed seroconversion in 55.2% individuals and an at least fourfold increase in antibodies in 44.8% of cases. In 18 out of the 111 vaccinated people (16.2%) no IgM antibodies were detected, neither in the acute nor the convalescent sera, but 14 of them showed seroconversion by HIA and 4 had an at least fourfold increase of hemagglutinin antibody titers. In the RT-PCR, 23 acute phase sera, 4 throat swabs and 5 urines were positive. Detection of mumps-specific IgM antibodies by ELISA and additional diagnostic methods may be required in settings with high vaccination coverage rates.