Multimodal imaging of gliomas in the context of evolving cellular and molecular therapies

Olivier Keunen*, Torfinn Taxt, Renate Grüner, Morten Lund-Johansen, Joerg Christian Tonn, Tina Pavlin, Rolf Bjerkvig, Simone P. Niclou, Frits Thorsen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

41 Citations (Scopus)


The vast majority of malignant gliomas relapse after surgery and standard radio-chemotherapy. Novel molecular and cellular therapies are thus being developed, targeting specific aspects of tumor growth. While histopathology remains the gold standard for tumor classification, neuroimaging has over the years taken a central role in the diagnosis and treatment follow up of brain tumors. It is used to detect and localize lesions, define the target area for biopsies, plan surgical and radiation interventions and assess tumor progression and treatment outcome. In recent years the application of novel drugs including anti-angiogenic agents that affect the tumor vasculature, has drastically modulated the outcome of brain tumor imaging. To properly evaluate the effects of emerging experimental therapies and successfully support treatment decisions, neuroimaging will have to evolve. Multi-modal imaging systems with existing and new contrast agents, molecular tracers, technological advances and advanced data analysis can all contribute to the establishment of disease relevant biomarkers that will improve disease management and patient care. In this review, we address the challenges of glioma imaging in the context of novel molecular and cellular therapies, and take a prospective look at emerging experimental and pre-clinical imaging techniques that bear the promise of meeting these challenges.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)98-115
Number of pages18
JournalAdvanced Drug Delivery Reviews
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2014


  • Brain tumors
  • Computer vision
  • Image analysis
  • Magnetic resonance imaging
  • Molecular imaging
  • Neuroimaging
  • Positron emission tomography
  • Radiology information systems


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