Lycopene from heat-induced cis-isomer-rich tomato sauce is more bioavailable than from all-trans-rich tomato sauce in human subjects

Nuray Z. Unlu, Torsten Bohn, David M. Francis, Haikady N. Nagaraja, Steven K. Clinton, Steven J. Schwartz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

179 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Lycopene is present mainly as cis-isomers in human serum and tissues whereas all-trans-lycopene predominates in tomato products, suggesting that all-trans-lycopene is isomerised in the body or is less bioavailable. The objectives of the present study were to develop processing conditions for tomatoes to obtain products with different cis-trans-lycopene isomer distribution and to assess their bioavailability. Healthy adult subjects (n 12) were recruited for this randomised cross-over trial. Each intervention was preceded by a 2-week washout period. Two tomato sauces, one rich in all-trans-lycopene (32.5 mg total lycopene/100 g sauce; 5% cis-isomers), the other high in cis-lycopene (26.4 mg total lycopene/100 g sauce; 45% cis-isomers), were produced by different heat-processing techniques. Each sauce (150 g) was served in a standardised meal at 08.00 hours after overnight fasting. Plasma TAG-rich lipoprotein fractions over 9.5 h following test-meal consumption as a measure of lycopene absorption were obtained and expressed as baseline-corrected area under the concentration v. time curves (AUC), using PLC-electrochemical detection. AUC values adjusted for the amount lycopene consumed showed that total, total cis-, and all-trans-lycopene responses were significantly higher from the cis-isomer-rich sauce, compared with the all-trans-rich sauce, being 7.30 (SEM 1.45) v. 4.74 (SEM 1.08) nmol £ h/l (P=0.002), 3.80 (SEM 0.76) v. 1.98 (SEM 0.37) nmol 7 × h/l (P=0.0005) and 3.50 (SEM 0.76) v. 2.76 (SEM 0.76) nmol £ h/l (P=0.01), respectively. The present study demonstrates significant lycopene bioavailability from cis-lycopene-rich tomato sauce and highlights the importance of considering isomer-distribution for lycopene bioavailability. Furthermore, processing parameters can be controlled to alter isomer patterns of tomato products and influence lycopene bioavailability.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)140-146
Number of pages7
JournalBritish Journal of Nutrition
Volume98
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2007
Externally publishedYes

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