Kardiovaskulärer Stress bei Fußball-Schiedsrichtern

Translated title of the contribution: Cardiovascular Stress in Football Referees

Axel Urhausen*, J. P. Vivas, C. Lambert, B. Weiler

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review


› Problem: As opposed to athletes, the cardiovascular strain of referees during a competition is neither systematically explored nor included in their cardiovascular screening programs. › Methods: Twenty-one referees from the two upper Luxemburgish football divisions were monitored during and after a match with an ambulatory Holter electrocardiogram. The results were compared to a sports cardiological check-up including a maximal incremental test on the treadmill. › Results: During the match, the referees evolved in average 17%, 32%, 34% and 17% in the “regenerative” (<80% of the HR of individual anaerobic threshold, IAT), “extensive” (80-87.5% IAT), “intensive” (87.6-102.5% IAT) and “high intensive” (>102.5% IAT) zones. During the match, the mean (154 ± 11 bpm, mean ±SD) and maximal HR (180 ± 10 bpm) were only slightly lower than at the IAT (161 ± 9 bpm) and the end of the treadmill test (183 ± 11 bpm), respectively. ECG only revealed minor arrhythmias both during Holter monitoring and ergometry on the treadmill, but a higher incidence of premature beats during the 1.5h of the match than during the 15.5h off-match period. One referee showing significant ST segment depressions during the match suffered from a sudden cardiac exercise-associated event two years later. › Conclusion: Football referees experience significant cardiovascular strain. A systematic endurance training is indispensable for football referees. Regular health monitoring, including a maximal exercise test on a treadmill ergometer, should be recommended not only for athletes but also for football referees.

Translated title of the contributionCardiovascular Stress in Football Referees
Original languageGerman
Pages (from-to)30-35
Number of pages6
JournalDeutsche Zeitschrift fur Sportmedizin
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2022


  • Cardiovascular Risk
  • Cardiovascular Strain
  • Soccer
  • Sudden Death


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