Italian translation and validation of the CGM satisfaction scale questionnaire

Enza Mozzillo, Marco Marigliano, Alda Troncone, Claudio Maffeis, Elisa Morotti, Francesca Di Candia, Ludovica Fedi, Dario Iafusco, Angela Zanfardino, Vittoria Cauvin, Riccardo Pertile, Giulio Maltoni, Stefano Zucchini, Valentino Cherubini, Valentina Tiberi, Nicola Minuto, Marta Bassi, Ivana Rabbone, Silvia Savastio, Davide TintiGianluca Tornese, Riccardo Schiaffini, Stefano Passanisi, Fortunato Lombardo, Riccardo Bonfanti, Andrea Scaramuzza*, Roberto Franceschi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Aims: Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are increasingly important for assessing patient satisfaction with diabetes technologies. PROs must be assessed with validated questionnaires in clinical practice and research studies. Our aim was to translate and validate the Italian version of the continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) Satisfaction (CGM-SAT) scale questionnaire. Methods: Questionnaire validation followed MAPI Research Trust guidelines and included forward translation, reconciliation, backward translation, and cognitive debriefing. Results: The final version of the questionnaire was administered to 210 patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and 232 parents. The completion rate was excellent, with almost 100% of items answered. The overall Cronbach’s coefficient was 0.71 and 0.85 for young people (patients) and parents indicating moderate and good internal consistency, respectively. Parent–young people agreement was 0.404 (95% confidence interval: 0.391–0.417), indicating moderate agreement between the two assessments. Factor analysis identified that factors assessing the “benefits” and “hassles” of CGM accounted for 33.9% and 12.9% of score variance in young people and 29.6% and 19.8% in parents, respectively. Discussion: We present the successful Italian translation and validation of the CGM-SAT scale questionnaire, which will be useful for assessing satisfaction with Italian T1D patients using CGM systems.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)673-679
Number of pages7
JournalActa Diabetologica
Issue number5
Early online date20 Feb 2023
Publication statusPublished - May 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • Adolescents
  • Children
  • Questionnaire
  • Type 1 diabetes
  • Validation


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