Meningiomas are among the most frequent tumors of the central nervous system. For a total resection, shown to decrease recurrences, it is paramount to reliably discriminate tumor tissue from normal dura mater intraoperatively. Raman spectroscopy (RS) is a non-destructive, label-free method for vibrational analysis of biochemical molecules. On the microscopic level, RS was already used to differentiate meningioma from dura mater. In this study we test its suitability for intraoperative macroscopic meningioma diagnostics. RS is applied to surgical specimen of intracranial meningiomas. The main purpose is the differentiation of tumor from normal dura mater, in order to potentially accelerate the diagnostic workflow. The collected meningioma and dura mater samples (n = 223 tissue samples from a total of 59 patients) are analyzed under untreated conditions using a new partially robotized RS acquisition system. Spectra (n = 1273) are combined with the according histopathological analysis for each sample. Based on this, a classifier is trained via machine learning. Our trained classifier separates meningioma and dura mater with a sensitivity of 96.06 ± 0.03% and a specificity of 95.44 ± 0.02% for internal fivefold cross validation and 100% and 93.97% if validated with an external test set. RS is an efficient method to discriminate meningioma from healthy dura mater in fresh tissue samples without additional processing or histopathological imaging. It is a quick and reliable complementary diagnostic tool to the neuropathological workflow and has potential for guided surgery. RS offers a safe way to examine unfixed surgical specimens in a perioperative setting.