Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors with involvement of cranial and peripheral nerves are exceedingly rare. The authors present the case of a 67-year-old man with an inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the left ulnar nerve, which was identified intraoperatively and mimicked a malignant neoplastic lesion. Histopathological examination revealed loosely structured fibrous tissue and collagen deposits intermingled with patchy infiltrates of lymphocytes, plasma cells, and histiocytes penetrating the endo- and epineurium of the affected nerve fascicles. There was strong expression of vimentin and actin in spindle cells throughout the lesion. The histiocytes were CD68- and major histocompatibility complex class II-positive, but lacked CD1a expression. A review of the literature revealed nine histopathologically confirmed cases of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors involving peripheral or cranial nerves in which slight differences in histopathological features and surgical management were found, which are discussed here.
- Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor
- Peripheral nervous system
- Plasma cell granuloma