BACKGROUND: Myeloid malignancies (MM) are heterogeneous when it comes to incidence rates and pathogenesis. These variation rates are important to generate hypotheses on causal aetiology. This study aimed to describe incidence and mortality patterns of MM among children, adolescents and young adults (cAYA) in Brazil and to evaluate trends in incidence and mortality rate overtime.
METHODS: Data were extracted from a dataset of 15 Population-based Cancer Registries located in five Brazilian geographical regions and calculated by age-specific, crude, and age-standardized incidence (ASR) and mortality rates per million persons. Joinpoint regression analyses were performed for trends evaluations, regionally. Annual Percent Change (APC) and Average Annual Percent Change (AAPC) were also estimated.
RESULTS: The overall ASR for incidence and mortality of MM in Brazil was 14.57 and 8.83 per million, respectively. The AML (non-APL AML and APL) incidence rate is 8.18 per million, whereas other MM subtypes altogether have an incidence rate of 2.62 per million, and not otherwise specified (NOS) is 3.70 per million. The analysis of incidence trends (AAPC) showed a significant decline in Manaus (-5.6%) and São Paulo (-4.7%), and a significant increase was observed in Fortaleza (5.8%). Mortality trends steadily declined in all registries, with significant declines occurring in Goiânia (-1.5%), Belo Horizonte (-2.3%), São Paulo (-2.5%), Curitiba (-2.8%) and Porto Alegre (-4.1%).
CONCLUSION: Our findings showed differences in the incidence and mortality rates of MM in cAYA in Brazil, geographically. Infants-AML have the highest incidence within the cAYA population (17.42 per million). There was a substantial decrease in mortality rate observed, which was interpreted as an improvement in MM recognition and therapeutic approach.
- Child, Preschool
- Infant, Newborn
- Myeloproliferative Disorders/epidemiology