Cancer cells utilize multiple mechanisms to evade and suppress anticancer immune responses creating a “cold” immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Oncolytic virotherapy is emerging as a promising approach to revert tumor immunosuppression and enhance the efficacy of other forms of immunotherapy. Growing evidence indicates that oncolytic viruses (OVs) act in a multimodal fashion, inducing immunogenic cell death and thereby eliciting robust anticancer immune responses. In this review, we summarize information about OV-mediated immune conversion of the tumor microenvironment. As a case study we focus on the rodent protoparvovirus H-1PV and its dual role as an oncolytic and immune modulatory agent. Potential strategies to improve H-1PV anticancer efficacy are also discussed.
|Journal||Frontiers in Immunology|
|Publication status||Published - 2019|
- Checkpoint blockade
- Combination therapy
- Immunogenic cell death
- Oncolytic viruses
- Tumor microenvironment