Alternatively activated macrophages (AAMs) contribute to the resolution of inflammation and tissue repair. However, molecular pathways that govern their differentiation have remained incompletely understood. Here, we show that uncoupling protein-2-mediated mitochondrial reprogramming and the transcription factor GATA3 specifically controlled the differentiation of pro-resolving AAMs in response to the alarmin IL-33. In macrophages, IL-33 sequentially triggered early expression of pro-inflammatory genes and subsequent differentiation into AAMs. Global analysis of underlying signaling events revealed that IL-33 induced a rapid metabolic rewiring of macrophages that involved uncoupling of the respiratory chain and increased production of the metabolite itaconate, which subsequently triggered a GATA3-mediated AAM polarization. Conditional deletion of GATA3 in mononuclear phagocytes accordingly abrogated IL-33-induced differentiation of AAMs and tissue repair upon muscle injury. Our data thus identify an IL-4-independent and GATA3-dependent pathway in mononuclear phagocytes that results from mitochondrial rewiring and controls macrophage plasticity and the resolution of inflammation.
- alternatively activated macrophage
- mitochondrial rewiring
- resolution of inlammation