In the last century, vitamin A was identified that included the nutritional relevant vitamin A1 / provitamin A1, as well as the vitamin A2 pathway concept. Globally, nutritional guidelines have focused on vitamin A1 with simplified recommendations and calculations based solely on vitamin A. The vitamin A / provitamin A terminology described vitamin A with respect to acting as a precursor of 11-cis-retinal, the chromophore of the visual pigment, as well as retinoic acid(s), being ligand(s) of the nuclear hormone receptors retinoic acid receptors (RARs) α, β and γ. All-trans-retinoic acid was conclusively shown to be the endogenous RAR ligand, while the concept of its isomer 9-cis-retinoic acid, being “the” endogenous ligand of the retinoid-X receptors (RXRs), remained inconclusive. Recently, 9-cis-13,14-dihydroretinoic acid was conclusively reported as an endogenous RXR ligand, and a direct nutritional precursor was postulated in 2018 and further confirmed by Rühl, Krezel and de Lera in 2021. This was further termed vitamin A5/X / provitamin A5/X. In this review, a new vitamin A5/X / provitamin A5/X concept is conceptualized in parallel to the vitamin A(1) / provitamin A(1) concept for daily dietary intake and towards dietary guidelines, with a focus on the existing national and international regulations for the physiological and nutritional relevance of vitamin A5/X. The aim of this review is to summarize available evidence and to emphasize gaps of knowledge regarding vitamin A5/X, based on new and older studies and proposed future directions as well as to stimulate and propose adapted nutritional regulations.
- Beta-carotene oxygenase
- Nuclear receptors
- Recommended dietary allowance
- Visual cycle