The presence and activity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific antibodies were analyzed in the sera of 15 sexually exposed seronegative persons who had Systemic HIV-specific cell-mediated immunity and IgA-mediated mucosal immunity and in their HIV-infected partners. The HIV-positive subjects had HIV-specific serum IgG and IgA; the seronegative persons had HIV-specific serum IgA in the absence of IgG. Testing of the seronegative persons 1 year after the interruption of at-risk sex showed that no IgG seroconversion had occurred and that HIV-specific IgA serum concentrations had declined. Serum from the HIV-exposed seronegative persons was analyzed for the ability to neutralize primary HIV-1 isolates. Neutralizing activity was detected in 5 of 15 sera and in 2 cases was retained by serum-purified IgA. Thus, the immunologic picture for resistance to HIV infection should include HIV-specific cell-mediated immunity as well as HIV-specific IgA- mediated mucosal and systemic immunity.