HIV-1 subtypes in Luxembourg, 1983-2000

Sabrina Deroo*, Isabelle Robert, Elodie Fontaine, Christine Lambert, Jean Marc Plesséria, Vic Arendt, Thérèse Staub, Robert Hemmer, François Schneider, Jean Claude Schmit

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

    37 Citations (Scopus)


    Objectives: To study the prevalence of HIV-1 subtypes in Luxembourg between 1983 and 2000. To compare the drug susceptibility of non-B and B clade viruses and the prevalence of resistance-associated mutations and polymorphisms before antiretroviral treatment. Design: A retrospective study on plasma samples of HIV-infected patients registered at the National Service of Infectious Diseases, Luxembourg, between 1983 and 2000. Methods: Genotyping was performed by sequencing of the reverse transcriptase (RT) and protease coding region of the pol gene. Drug susceptibility was assessed in a recombinant virus assay. Results: A total of 20.1% of the HIV-positive patients were infected with non-B subtypes, and since 1990 the proportion of non-B viruses has increased ninefold. Eleven out of 14 F1 subtypes occurred in patients native to Luxembourg. Major resistance mutations related to protease inhibitors (PI), nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) occurred in less than 3% of treatment-naive viruses; however, 87% of the viruses had at least one PI-associated mutation. Natural polymorphism of the protease and RT coding region was observed more frequently among non-B than B viruses. Significantly more B viruses displayed resistance to the tested PI, NRTI and NNRTI (P = 0.044). Conclusion: The proportion of non-B viruses has increased dramatically since 1990. Non-B subtypes showed no decreased susceptibility to antiretroviral drugs, but displayed minor mutations and polymorphisms at higher frequency in their protease and RT coding region. In contrast, a significantly higher proportion of B viruses showed resistance to a range of antiretroviral drugs.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)2461-2467
    Number of pages7
    Issue number18
    Publication statusPublished - 6 Dec 2002


    • HIV drug resistance
    • HIV subtypes
    • Polymorphism
    • Resistance mutations


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