G protein–receptor kinases 5/6 are the key regulators of G protein–coupled receptor 35–arrestin interactions

Amlan Ganguly, Tezz Quon, Laura Jenkins, Babu Joseph, Rima Al-awar, Andy Chevigne, Andrew B. Tobin, David E. Uehling, Carsten Hoffmann, Julia Drube, Graeme Milligan*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Human G protein–coupled receptor 35 is regulated by agonist-mediated phosphorylation of a set of five phospho-acceptor amino acids within its C-terminal tail. Alteration of both Ser300 and Ser303 to alanine in the GPR35a isoform greatly reduces the ability of receptor agonists to promote interactions with arrestin adapter proteins. Here, we have integrated the use of cell lines genome edited to lack expression of combinations of G protein receptor kinases (GRKs), selective small molecule inhibitors of subsets of these kinases, and antisera able to specifically identify either human GPR35a or mouse GPR35 only when Ser300 and Ser303 (orce; the equivalent residues in mouse GPR35) have become phosphorylated to demonstrate that GRK5 and GRK6 cause agonist-dependent phosphorylation of these residues. Extensions of these studies demonstrated the importance of the GRK5/6-mediated phosphorylation of these amino acids for agonist-induced internalization of the receptor. Homology and predictive modeling of the interaction of human GPR35 with GRKs showed that the N terminus of GRK5 is likely to dock in the same methionine pocket on the intracellular face of GPR35 as the C terminus of the α5 helix of Gα13 and, that while this is also the case for GRK6, GRK2 and GRK3 are unable to do so effectively. These studies provide unique and wide-ranging insights into modes of regulation of GPR35, a receptor that is currently attracting considerable interest as a novel therapeutic target in diseases including ulcerative colitis.

Original languageEnglish
Article number105218
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Issue number10
Early online date1 Sept 2023
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2023


  • arrestins
  • G protein–coupled receptor kinases
  • GPR35
  • phospho-site–specific antisera
  • phosphorylation


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