Evaluation of two commercial kits for the detection of genotypic drug resistance on a panel of HIV type 1 subtypes A through J

Elodie Fontaine, Chiara Riva, Martine Peeters, Jean Claude Schmit, Eric Delaporte, Kristel Van Laethem, Kristien Van Vaerenbergh, Joke Snoeck, Erik Van Wijngaerden, Erik De Clercq, Mark Van Ranst, Anne Mieke Vandamme*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

45 Citations (Scopus)


We compared the two commercially available sequencing kits for HIV-1 drug resistance testing, the ViroSeq Genotyping System (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, U.S.A.) and the TRUGENE HIV-1 Genotyping Kit (Visible Genetics, Inc., Toronto, Ontario, Canada), with our in-house genotyping system. Fifteen viral isolates from African patients (6 treated and 9 untreated) covering a panel of HIV-1 subtypes A through J and 7 plasma samples from Belgian and African patients (2 treated and 5 untreated) were tested. All the samples could be amplified and sequenced by the three systems; however, for all systems, alternative amplification/sequencing primers had to be used for some samples belonging to subtype B as well as to other subtypes. The consensus sequence was partially derived from only one strand for the in-house system and for the ViroSeq Genotyping System. The TRUGENE HIV-1 Genotyping Kit scored the highest number of ambiguities, followed by the ViroSeq Genotyping System and the in-house system. For 11 samples, these differences in reporting mixtures affected 14 resistance-related positions, which altered the interpretation toward protease inhibitors for 2 samples when using version 1.2 RetroGram software (Virology Networks, Utrecht, The Netherlands). All three systems were able to sequence diluted samples with a viral load down to 103 or 104 RNA copies/ml. Our data therefore suggest that the performance of amplification and sequencing primers must be improved to allow fast and reliable resistance testing for all HIV-1 subtypes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)254-258
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2001
Externally publishedYes


  • AJ270543-AJ270564.
  • Genotyping
  • HIV-1 subtypes
  • Resistance testing


Dive into the research topics of 'Evaluation of two commercial kits for the detection of genotypic drug resistance on a panel of HIV type 1 subtypes A through J'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this