Estimation of exposure durations for vitamin D production and sunburn risk in Switzerland

A. Religi*, C. Backes, A. Chatelan, J. L. Bulliard, L. Vuilleumier, L. Moccozet, M. Bochud, D. Vernez

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Although overexposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is responsible for cutaneous melanoma and epithelial skin cancer and can cause negative health effects such as sunburn, a “little and often” exposure regime is often suggested to produce naturally recommended vitamin D levels, being essential for skeletal health. This study aimed to quantify solar UV doses needed to trigger 1000 International Units (IU) vitamin D doses and, at the same time, producing sunburn in Switzerland. Solar UV erythema irradiance (in mW/m2) measured at four meteorological stations in Switzerland for the period 2005–2017 were used to evaluate effective solar UV radiation producing 1000 IU vitamin D doses in skin phototype II and III individuals. Daily solar UV exposure durations (in minutes) needed to produce vitamin D with limited sunburn risk were estimated while considering mean vitamin D food intake of the Swiss population and seasonal skin coverage. In summer and spring, with 22% of uncovered skin, 1000 IU vitamin D doses are synthesized in 10–15 min of sun exposure for adults. Exposure durations between erythema risk and 1000 IU vitamin D production vary between 9 and 46 min. In winter and autumn, the recommended vitamin D production without sunburn risks often unachievable, since up to 6.5 h of sun exposure might be necessary considering 8–10% of uncovered skin surface. The vitamin D food intake only represented 10% of the recommended vitamin D production and remained unchanged throughout the year. These findings might clarify why vitamin D deficiency is common in Switzerland. Moreover, exposure durations between recommended vitamin D and increased sunburn risk might only differ by few minutes. Without additional oral vitamin D supplementation, daily doses of vitamin D (1000 IU) are not reachable in autumn and winter months in Switzerland.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)742-752
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology
Volume29
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2019
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Estimation of exposure durations for vitamin D production and sunburn risk in Switzerland'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this