Education as Risk Factor of Mild Cognitive Impairment: The Link to the Gut Microbiome

Matthias Klee*, V. T.E. Aho, P. May, A. Heintz-Buschart, Z. Landoulsi, S. R. Jónsdóttir, C. Pauly, L. Pavelka, L. Delacour, A. Kaysen, R. Krüger, P. Wilmes, A. K. Leist, Geeta Acharya, Gloria Aguayo, Myriam Alexandre, Muhammad Ali, Wim Ammerlann, Giuseppe Arena, Rudi BallingMichele Bassis, Katy Beaumont, Regina Becker, Camille Bellora, Guy Berchem, Daniela Berg, Alexandre Bisdorff, Ibrahim Boussaad, Kathrin Brockmann, Jessica Calmes, Lorieza Castillo, Gessica Contesotto, Nico Diederich, Rene Dondelinger, Daniela Esteves, Guy Fagherazzi, Jean Yves Ferrand, Manon Gantenbein, Thomas Gasser, Piotr Gawron, Soumyabrata Ghosh, Marijus Giraitis, Enrico Glaab, Elisa Gómez De Lope, Jérôme Graas, Mariella Graziano, Valentin Groues, Anne Grünewald, Wei Gu, Gaël Hammot, Anne Marie Hanff, Linda Hansen, Michael Heneka, Estelle Henry, Sylvia Herbrink, Sascha Herzinger, Michael Heymann, Michele Hu, Alexander Hundt, Nadine Jacoby, Jacek Jaroslaw Lebioda, Yohan Jarosz, Sonja Jónsdóttir, Quentin Klopfenstein, Jochen Klucken, Rejko Krüger, Pauline Lambert, Zied Landoulsi, Roseline Lentz, Inga Liepelt, Robert Liszka, Laura Longhino, Victoria Lorentz, Paula Cristina Lupu, Clare Mackay, Walter Maetzler, Katrin Marcus, Guilherme Marques, Tainá M. Marques, Patricia Martins Conde, Patrick May, Deborah Mcintyre, Chouaib Mediouni, Francoise Meisch, Myriam Menster, Maura Minelli, Michel Mittelbronn, Brit Mollenhauer, Friedrich Mühlschlegel, Romain Nati, Ulf Nehrbass, Sarah Nickels, Beatrice Nicolai, Jean Paul Nicolay, Fozia Noor, Marek Ostaszewski, Clarissa P.C. Gomes, Sinthuja Pachchek, Claire Pauly, Laure Pauly, Lukas Pavelka, Magali Perquin, Rosalina Ramos Lima, Armin Rauschenberger, Rajesh Rawal, Dheeraj Reddy Bobbili, Kirsten Roomp, Eduardo Rosales, Isabel Rosety, Estelle Sandt, Stefano Sapienza, Venkata Satagopam, Margaux Schmitt, Sabine Schmitz, Reinhard Schneider, Jens Schwamborn, Amir Sharify, Ekaterina Soboleva, Kate Sokolowska, Hermann Thien, Elodie Thiry, Rebecca Ting Jiin Loo, Christophe Trefois, Johanna Trouet, Olena Tsurkalenko, Michel Vaillant, Mesele Valenti, Carlos Vega, Liliana Vilas Boas, Maharshi Vyas, Richard Wade-Martins, Paul Wilmes, Evi Wollscheid-Lengeling, Gelani Zelimkhanov

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Background: With differences apparent in the gut microbiome in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia, and risk factors of dementia linked to alterations of the gut microbiome, the question remains if gut microbiome characteristics may mediate associations of education with MCI. Objectives: We sought to examine potential mediation of the association of education and MCI by gut microbiome diversity or composition. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Luxembourg, the Greater Region (surrounding areas in Belgium, France, Germany). Participants: Control participants of the Luxembourg Parkinson’s Study. Measurements: Gut microbiome composition, ascertained with 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Differential abundance, assessed across education groups (0–10, 11–16, 16+ years of education). Alpha diversity (Chao1, Shannon and inverse Simpson indices). Mediation analysis with effect decomposition was conducted with education as exposure, MCI as outcome and gut microbiome metrics as mediators. Results: After exclusion of participants below 50, or with missing data, n=258 participants (n=58 MCI) were included (M [SD] Age=64.6 [8.3] years). Higher education (16+ years) was associated with MCI (Odds ratio natural direct effect=0.35 [95% CI 0.15–0.81]. Streptococcus and Lachnospiraceae-UCG-001 genera were more abundant in higher education. Conclusions: Education is associated with gut microbiome composition and MCI risk without clear evidence for mediation. However, our results suggest signatures of the gut microbiome that have been identified previously in AD and MCI to be reflected in lower education and suggest education as important covariate in microbiome studies.

Original languageEnglish
JournalThe journal of prevention of Alzheimer's disease
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2024

Keywords

  • Dementia
  • education
  • gut microbiome
  • mediation
  • mild cognitive impairment

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