Dietary vitamin D intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition: The EPIC-InterAct study

S. Abbas, J. Linseisen*, S. Rohrmann, J. W.J. Beulens, B. Buijsse, P. Amiano, E. Ardanaz, B. Balkau, H. Boeing, F. Clavel-Chapelon, G. Fagherazzi, P. W. Franks, D. Gavrila, S. Grioni, R. Kaaks, T. J. Key, K. T. Khaw, T. Kühn, A. Mattiello, E. Molina-MontesP. M. Nilsson, K. Overvad, J. R. Quirós, O. Rolandsson, C. Sacerdote, C. Saieva, N. Slimani, I. Sluijs, A. M.W. Spijkerman, A. Tjonneland, R. Tumino, D. L. Van Der A, R. Zamora-Ros, S. J. Sharp, C. Langenberg, N. G. Forouhi, E. Riboli, N. J. Wareham

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


Background/Objectives: Prospective cohort studies have indicated that serum vitamin D levels are inversely related to risk of type 2 diabetes. However, such studies cannot determine the source of vitamin D. Therefore, we examined the association of dietary vitamin D intake with incident type 2 diabetes within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct study in a heterogeneous European population including eight countries with large geographical variation. Subjects/Methods: Using a case-cohort design, 11 245 incident cases of type 2 diabetes and a representative subcohort (N=15 798) were included in the analyses. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for type 2 diabetes were calculated using a Prentice-weighted Cox regression adjusted for potential confounders. Twenty-four-hour diet-recall data from a subsample (N=2347) were used to calibrate habitual intake data derived from dietary questionnaires. Results: Median follow-up time was 10.8 years. Dietary vitamin D intake was not significantly associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes. HR and 95% CIs for the highest compared to the lowest quintile of uncalibrated vitamin D intake was 1.09 (0.97-1.22) (Ptrend =0.17). No associations were observed in a sex-specific analysis. The overall pooled effect (HR (95% CI)) using the continuous calibrated variable was 1.00 (0.97-1.03) per increase of 1 μg/day dietary vitamin D. Conclusions: This observational study does not support an association between higher dietary vitamin D intake and type 2 diabetes incidence. This result has to be interpreted in light of the limited contribution of dietary vitamin D on the overall vitamin D status of a person.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)196-202
Number of pages7
JournalEuropean Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2014
Externally publishedYes


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