Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a prevalent liver disease predisposing patients to life-threatening conditions, including cirrhosis. There is evidence that the incidence of NAFLD is related to the individuals’ dietary patterns; however, it is still remaining unknown whether the inflammatory potential of various foods/dietary patterns can directly predict a higher incidence of NAFLD. Methods: In this cross-sectional cohort study, we investigated the relationship between the inflammatory potential of various food items and the incidence/odds of NAFLD. We used data from Fasa PERSIAN Cohort Study comprising 10,035 individuals. To measure the inflammatory potential of diet, we used the dietary inflammatory index (DII®). Fatty liver index (FLI) was also calculated for each individual to identify the presence of NAFLD (cut-off = 60). Results: Our findings showed that higher DII is significantly associated with increased incidence/odds of NAFLD (OR = 1.254, 95% CI: 1.178—1.334). Additionally, we found out that higher age, female gender, diabetes mellitus, hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension are other predictors of developing NAFLD. Conclusions: It can be concluded that consuming foods with a higher inflammatory potential is associated with a greater risk of developing NAFLD. Additionally, metabolic diseases, including dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension, can also predict the incidence of NAFLD.
- Dietary inflammatory index
- Fatty liver index
- Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease