Several dietary and host related factors potentially influencing carotenoid (beta-carotene, lutein and zeaxanthin) bioaccessibility from spinach, including different concentrations of sodium, calcium and magnesium, were systematically investigated by means of an in vitro digestion model. Bioaccessibility was highest when milk (4% fat) and lowest when skimmed milk or more complex food matrices such as sausage were added to the meal. Micellarisation significantly depended on the presence and concentration of bile salts and pancreatin (p<0.001, Bonferroni) but was unaffected by pepsin. Micellarisation significantly decreased to 61.4 ± 3.0% of control (p<0.001, Dunnett's) at high cholesterol (114. mg/test meal) but not at similar stigmasterol concentrations. Calcium and magnesium. ≥13.8. mM individually inhibited micelle formation (>40% on average), presumably due to the generation of insoluble soaps with fatty acids and bile salts. Increased sodium concentrations (280 and 460. mM) altered carotenoid micellarisation patterns, favoring beta-carotene isomers (p<0.001, Bonferroni) but decreasing lutein and zeaxanthin (p<0.001 and p<0.05, respectively, Bonferroni). This study suggests that minerals may impact carotenoid bioavailability.
|Number of pages||7|
|Publication status||Published - 15 Apr 2011|
- In vitro digestion
- Spinacia oleracea