Dietary and host-related factors influencing carotenoid bioaccessibility from spinach (Spinacia oleracea)

Eric Biehler, Anouk Kaulmann, Lucien Hoffmann, Elmar Krause, Torsten Bohn*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

65 Citations (Scopus)


Several dietary and host related factors potentially influencing carotenoid (beta-carotene, lutein and zeaxanthin) bioaccessibility from spinach, including different concentrations of sodium, calcium and magnesium, were systematically investigated by means of an in vitro digestion model. Bioaccessibility was highest when milk (4% fat) and lowest when skimmed milk or more complex food matrices such as sausage were added to the meal. Micellarisation significantly depended on the presence and concentration of bile salts and pancreatin (p<0.001, Bonferroni) but was unaffected by pepsin. Micellarisation significantly decreased to 61.4 ± 3.0% of control (p<0.001, Dunnett's) at high cholesterol (114. mg/test meal) but not at similar stigmasterol concentrations. Calcium and magnesium. ≥13.8. mM individually inhibited micelle formation (>40% on average), presumably due to the generation of insoluble soaps with fatty acids and bile salts. Increased sodium concentrations (280 and 460. mM) altered carotenoid micellarisation patterns, favoring beta-carotene isomers (p<0.001, Bonferroni) but decreasing lutein and zeaxanthin (p<0.001 and p<0.05, respectively, Bonferroni). This study suggests that minerals may impact carotenoid bioavailability.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1328-1334
Number of pages7
JournalFood Chemistry
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 15 Apr 2011
Externally publishedYes


  • Bioaccessibility
  • Carotenoids
  • In vitro digestion
  • Micellarisation
  • Minerals
  • Spinacia oleracea


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