Detection of Unsupervised Standardized Gait Tests from Real-World Inertial Sensor Data in Parkinson's Disease

Martin Ullrich*, Annika Mucke, Arne Kuderle, Nils Roth, Till Gladow, Heiko Gabner, Franz Marxreiter, Jochen Klucken, Bjoern M. Eskofier, Felix Kluge

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)


Gait tests as part of home monitoring study protocols for patients with movement disorders may provide valuable standardized anchor-points for real-world gait analysis using inertial measurement units (IMUs). However, analyzing unsupervised gait tests relies on reliable test annotations by the patients requiring a potentially error-prone interaction with the recording system. To overcome this limitation, this work presents a novel algorithmic pipeline for the automated detection of unsupervised standardized gait tests from continuous real-world IMU data. In a study with twelve Parkinson's disease patients, we recorded real-world gait data over two weeks using foot-worn IMUs. During continuous daily recordings, the participants performed series of three consecutive {4}\times {10} -Meters-Walking-Tests ( {4}\times {10} MWTs) at different walking speeds, besides their usual daily-living activities. The algorithm first detected these gait test series using a gait sequence detection algorithm, a peak enhancement pipeline, and subsequence Dynamic Time Warping and then decomposed them into single {4}\times {10} MWTs based on the walking speed. In the evaluation with 419 available gait test series, the detection reached an F1-score of 88.9% and the decomposition an F1-score of 94.0%. A concurrent validity evaluation revealed very good agreement between spatio-Temporal gait parameters derived from manually labelled and automatically detected {4}\times {10} MWTs. Our algorithm allows to remove the burden of system interaction from the patients and reduces the time for manual data annotation for researchers. The study contributes to an improved automated processing of real-world IMU gait data and enables a simple integration of standardized tests into continuous long-Term recordings. This will help to bridge the gap between supervised and unsupervised gait assessment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2103-2111
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Publication statusPublished - 11 Oct 2021


  • Machine learning
  • accelerometer
  • activity recognition
  • gyroscope


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