Brain metastasis (BM) is a major cause of cancer patient morbidity. Clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) represent important resources to assess tumor progression and treatment responses. In preclinical research, anatomical MRI and to some extent functional MRI have frequently been used to assess tumor progression. In contrast, PET has only to a limited extent been used in animal BM research. A considerable culprit is that results from most preclinical studies have shown little impact on the implementation of new treatment strategies in the clinic. This emphasizes the need for the development of robust, high-quality preclinical imaging strategies with potential for clinical translation. This review focuses on advanced preclinical MRI and PET imaging methods for BM, describing their applications in the context of what has been done in the clinic. The strengths and shortcomings of each technology are presented, and recommendations for future directions in the development of the individual imaging modalities are suggested. Finally, we highlight recent developments in quantitative MRI and PET, the use of radiomics and multimodal imaging, and the need for a standardization of imaging technologies and protocols between preclinical centers.