Combinatorial analysis reveals highly coordinated early-stage immune reactions that predict later antiviral immunity in mild COVID-19 patients

Christophe M. Capelle, Séverine Ciré, Olivia Domingues, Isabelle Ernens, Fanny Hedin, Aurélie Fischer, Chantal J. Snoeck, Wim Ammerlaan, Maria Konstantinou, Kamil Grzyb, Alexander Skupin, Cara L. Carty, Christiane Hilger, Georges Gilson, Aljosa Celebic, Paul Wilmes, Antonio Del Sol, Ian M. Kaplan, Fay Betsou, Tamir AbdelrahmanAntonio Cosma, Michel Vaillant, Guy Fagherazzi, Markus Ollert*, Feng Q. Hefeng

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

While immunopathology has been widely studied in patients with severe COVID-19, immune responses in non-hospitalized patients have remained largely elusive. We systematically analyze 484 peripheral cellular or soluble immune features in a longitudinal cohort of 63 mild and 15 hospitalized patients versus 14 asymptomatic and 26 household controls. We observe a transient increase of IP10/CXCL10 and interferon-β levels, coordinated responses of dominant SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4 and fewer CD8 T cells, and various antigen-presenting and antibody-secreting cells in mild patients within 3 days of PCR diagnosis. The frequency of key innate immune cells and their functional marker expression are impaired in hospitalized patients at day 1 of inclusion. T cell and dendritic cell responses at day 1 are highly predictive for SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody responses after 3 weeks in mild but not hospitalized patients. Our systematic analysis reveals a combinatorial picture and trajectory of various arms of the highly coordinated early-stage immune responses in mild COVID-19 patients.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100600
JournalCell Reports Medicine
Volume3
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 19 Apr 2022

Keywords

  • combinatorial analysis
  • COVID-19
  • early-stage response
  • immunology
  • mild patients
  • non-hospitalized
  • predict antibody levels
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • systems immunology
  • transient cytokine response

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