Carotenoids in Health as Studied by Omics-Related Endpoints

Torsten Bohn*, Emilio Balbuena, Hande Ulus, Mohammed Iddir, Genan Wang, Nathan Crook, Abdulkerim Eroglu*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Carotenoids have been associated with risk reduction for several chronic diseases, including the association of their dietary intake/circulating levels with reduced incidence of obesity, type 2 diabetes, certain types of cancer, and even lower total mortality. In addition to some carotenoids constituting vitamin A precursors, they are implicated in potential antioxidant effects and pathways related to inflammation and oxidative stress, including transcription factors such as nuclear factor κB and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2. Carotenoids and metabolites may also interact with nuclear receptors, mainly retinoic acid receptor/retinoid X receptor and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, which play a role in the immune system and cellular differentiation. Therefore, a large number of downstream targets are likely influenced by carotenoids, including but not limited to genes and proteins implicated in oxidative stress and inflammation, antioxidation, and cellular differentiation processes. Furthermore, recent studies also propose an association between carotenoid intake and gut microbiota. While all these endpoints could be individually assessed, a more complete/integrative way to determine a multitude of health-related aspects of carotenoids includes (multi)omics–related techniques, especially transcriptomics, proteomics, lipidomics, and metabolomics, as well as metagenomics, measured in a variety of biospecimens including plasma, urine, stool, white blood cells, or other tissue cellular extracts. In this review, we highlight the use of omics technologies to assess health-related effects of carotenoids in mammalian organisms and models.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1538-1578
Number of pages41
JournalAdvances in Nutrition
Volume14
Issue number6
Early online date9 Sept 2023
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2023

Keywords

  • body tissues
  • cellular compartments
  • exposome
  • health
  • inflammation
  • LC-MS-MS
  • lutein
  • lycopene
  • metabolites
  • oxidative stress
  • transcription factors
  • β-carotene

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