Carotenoid consumption has been linked to a number of beneficial health effects, including the reduction of chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular complications. However, no data are available on their action on the intestinal epithelium, being exposed to the highest concentrations of carotenoids in the human body, and where they could act preventively on intestinal inflammatory diseases such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether lycopene and β-carotene in micelles (M), at concentrations that could be reached via the diet (10-25μg/ml) could aid in the reduction of TNF-α plus IL-1β-induced inflammation of Caco-2 human epithelial cells. The impact on biomarkers of inflammation, including IL-8, NO and cyclo-oxygenase-2 (through PGE-2α), and the NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways of intracellular signalling cascades were evaluated compared with controls (empty M). Furthermore, proteomic analyses were conducted from total cellular protein extracts. The results revealed that isolated carotenoids had no statistical significant anti-inflammatory effect on the biomarkers observed, or on the regulation of NF-κB and MAPK. Nevertheless, analyses of the proteome suggested that fifteen proteins were significantly (P<0.05, expression ratio >1.3) differentially regulated following β-carotene exposure, participating mostly in metabolic activities including antioxidant mechanisms, such as glutathione S-transferase A1. Only one protein was differentially regulated by lycopene (profilin-1). To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to investigate pathways involved in the action of carotenoids on the intestinal epithelium.
- Caco-2 cells
- Intestinal epithelium