Burden of HIV and treatment outcomes among TB patients in rural Kenya: a 9-year longitudinal study

Moses M Ngari*, Mohammed A Rashid, Deche Sanga, Hiram Mathenge, Oscar Agoro, Jane K Mberia, Geoffrey G Katana, Michel Vaillant, Osman A Abdullahi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


BACKGROUND: Although tuberculosis (TB) patients coinfected with HIV are at risk of poor treatment outcomes, there is paucity of data on changing trends of TB/HIV co-infection and their treatment outcomes. This study aims to estimate the burden of TB/HIV co-infection over time, describe the treatment available to TB/HIV patients and estimate the effect of TB/HIV co-infection on TB treatment outcomes.

METHODS: This was a retrospective data analyses from TB surveillance in two counties in Kenya (Nyeri and Kilifi): 2012‒2020. All TB patients aged ≥ 18 years were included. The main exposure was HIV status categorised as infected, negative or unknown status. World Health Organization TB treatment outcomes were explored; cured, treatment complete, failed treatment, defaulted/lost-to-follow-up, died and transferred out. Time at risk was from date of starting TB treatment to six months later/date of the event and Cox proportion with shared frailties models were used to estimate effects of TB/HIV co-infection on TB treatment outcomes.

RESULTS: The study includes 27,285 patients, median (IQR) 37 (29‒49) years old and 64% male. 23,986 (88%) were new TB cases and 91% were started on 2RHZE/4RH anti-TB regimen. Overall, 7879 (29%, 95% 28‒30%) were HIV infected. The proportion of HIV infected patient was 32% in 2012 and declined to 24% in 2020 (trend P-value = 0.01). Uptake of ARTs (95%) and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis (99%) was high. Overall, 84% patients completed six months TB treatment, 2084 (7.6%) died, 4.3% LTFU, 0.9% treatment failure and 2.8% transferred out. HIV status was associated with lower odds of completing TB treatment: infected Vs negative (aOR 0.56 (95%CI 0.52‒0.61) and unknown vs negative (aOR 0.57 (95%CI 0.44‒0.73). Both HIV infected and unknown status were associated with higher hazard of death: (aHR 2.40 (95%CI 2.18‒2.63) and 1.93 (95%CI 1.44‒2.56)) respectively and defaulting treatment/LTFU: aHR 1.16 (95%CI 1.01‒1.32) and 1.55 (95%CI 1.02‒2.35)) respectively. HIV status had no effect on hazard of transferring out and treatment failure.

CONCLUSION: The overall burden of TB/HIV coinfection was within previous pooled estimate. Our findings support the need for systematic HIV testing as those with unknown status had similar TB treatment outcomes as the HIV infected.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)362
JournalBMC Infectious Diseases
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 30 May 2023


  • Humans
  • Male
  • Adult
  • Middle Aged
  • Female
  • HIV Infections/complications
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Coinfection/drug therapy
  • Kenya/epidemiology
  • Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use
  • Tuberculosis/complications
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Latent Tuberculosis/drug therapy


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